Up to 10% of patients develop Paradoxical Depression after clipping of Unruptured Aneurysms

Postoperative Delayed Paradoxical Depression After Uncomplicated Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery

Garzon-Muvdi T, et al.

WORLD NEUROSURGERY

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND

Postoperative delayed paradoxical depression (PDPD) is a psychiatric condition described in patients without a history of mood disorders who undergo major surgery without complications and become clinically depressed. PDPD has been recognized in major surgical interventions, including coronary artery bypass surgery. We sought to determine the incidence and potential factors associated with PDPD after surgical treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS

The cohort of 105 patients was derived from a prospective observational data set of 3788 consecutive cases of intracranial aneurysms accrued from 1991 to 2015. Starting in 2010, patients with PDPD were identified, and psychiatric treatment and outcomes were documented. Incidence of PDPD and baseline characteristics were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze associations of variables with PDPD. Patients with preoperative depression or bipolar disorder were excluded.

RESULTS

Of 105 patients, 10.5% (n = 11) were found to have newly diagnosed major depressive disorder after surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. By univariate and multivariate analysis, the only significant difference between the 2 groups was full return to daily activities (P = 0.017 and P = 0.029, odds ratio = 0.06, 95% confidence interval [0.00, 0.70]), which was a result and not a cause of PDPD. All 11 patients with PDPD recovered fully, 9 after psychotherapy and/or pharmacotherapy and 2 without intervention.

CONCLUSIONS

PDPD after uncomplicated unruptured aneurysm surgery can be surprising to the neurosurgeon and the patient and should be promptly identified and addressed to achieve a full recovery. PDPD can be interpreted as a mild variant of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27913259

SRS preferred over whole brain radiation for metastatic disease

Effect of Radiosurgery Alone vs Radiosurgery With Whole Brain Radiation Therapy on Cognitive Function in Patients With 1 to 3 Brain Metastases A Randomized Clinical Trial

Brown PD, et al

JAMA

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE

Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) significantly improves tumor control in the brain after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), yet because of its association with cognitive decline, its role in the treatment of patients with brain metastases remains controversial.

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether there is less cognitive deterioration at 3 months after SRS alone vs SRS plus WBRT.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

At 34 institutions in North America, patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive SRS or SRS plus WBRT between February 2002 and December 2013.

INTERVENTIONS

The WBRT dose schedule was 30 Gy in 12 fractions; the SRS dose was 18 to 22 Gy in the SRS plus WBRT group and 20 to 24 Gy for SRS alone.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES

The primary end point was cognitive deterioration (decline >1 SD from baseline on at least 1cognitive test at 3 months) in participants who completed the baseline and 3-month assessments. Secondary end points included time to intracranial failure, quality of life, functional independence, long-term cognitive status, and overall survival.

RESULTS

There were 213 randomized participants (SRS alone, n = 111; SRS plus WBRT, n = 102) with a mean age of 60.6 years (SD, 10.5 years); 103 (48%) were women. There was less cognitive deterioration at 3 months after SRS alone (40/63 patients [63.5%]) than when combined with WBRT (44/48 patients [91.7%]; difference, -28.2%; 90% CI, -41.9% to -14.4%; P < .001). Quality of life was higher at 3 months with SRS alone, including overall quality of life (mean change from baseline, -0.1 vs -12.0 points; mean difference, 11.9; 95% CI, 4.8-19.0 points; P = .001). Time to intracranial failure was significantly shorter for SRS alone compared with SRS plus WBRT (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.2-5.9; P <  .001). There was no significant difference in functional independence at 3 months between the treatment groups (mean change from baseline, -1.5 points for SRS alone vs -4.2 points for SRS plus WBRT; mean difference, 2.7 points; 95% CI, -2.0 to 7.4 points; P = .26). Median overall survival was 10.4 months for SRS alone and 7.4 months for SRS plus WBRT (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.38; P = .92). For long-term survivors, the incidence of cognitive deterioration was less after SRS alone at 3 months (5/11 [45.5%] vs 16/17 [94.1%]; difference, -48.7%; 95% CI, -87.6% to -9.7%; P = .007) and at 12 months (6/10 [60%] vs 17/18 [94.4%]; difference, -34.4%; 95% CI, -74.4% to 5.5%; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases, the use of SRS alone, compared with SRS combined with WBRT, resulted in less cognitive deterioration at 3 months. In the absence of a difference in overall survival, these findings suggest that for patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases amenable to radiosurgery, SRS alone may be a preferred strategy. Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27458945

56% obliteration rate from SRS for Grade III AVMs

Stereotactic radiosurgery for Spetzler-Martin Grade III arteriovenous malformations: an international multicenter study

Ding D, et al.

JNS

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

Because of the angioarchitectural diversity of Spetzler-Martin (SM) Grade III arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), the management of these lesions is incompletely defined. The aims of this multicenter, retrospective cohort study were to evaluate the outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for SM Grade III AVMs and to determine the factors predicting these outcomes. METHODS

The authors analyzed and pooled data from patients with SM Grade III AVMs treated with SRS at 8 institutions participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Patients with these AVMs and a minimum follow-up length of 12 months were included in the study cohort. An optimal outcome was defined as AVM obliteration, no post-SRS hemorrhage, and no permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RICs). Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses.

RESULTS

The SM Grade III AVM cohort comprised 891 patients with a mean age of 34 years at the time of SRS. The mean nidus volume, radiosurgical margin dose, and follow-up length were 4.5 cm3, 20 Gy, and 89 months, respectively. The actuarial obliteration rates at 5 and 10 years were 63% and 78%, respectively. The annual postradiosurgery hemorrhage rate was 1.2%. Symptomatic and permanent RICs were observed in 11% and 4% of the patients, respectively. Optimal outcome was achieved in 56% of the patients and was significantly more frequent in cases of unruptured AVMs (OR 2.3, p < 0.001). The lack of a previous hemorrhage (p = 0.037), absence of previous AVM embolization (p = 0.002), smaller nidus volume (p = 0.014), absence of AVM-associated arterial aneurysms (p = 0.023), and higher margin dose (p < 0.001) were statistically significant independent predictors of optimal outcome in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS Stereotactic radiosurgery provided better outcomes for patients with small, unruptured SM Grade III AVMs than for large or ruptured SM Grade III nidi. A prospective trial or registry that facilitates a comparison of SRS with conservative AVM management might further clarify the authors' observations for these often high-risk AVMs. Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081906

Lower mortality and lower severe disability with decompressive craniotomy for traumatic intracranial hypertension

Trial of Decompressive Craniectomy for Traumatic Intracranial Hypertension

Hutchinson PJ, et al.

NEJM

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND

The effect of decompressive craniectomy on clinical outcomes in patients with refractory traumatic intracranial hypertension remains unclear.

METHODS

From 2004 through 2014, we randomly assigned 408 patients, 10 to 65 years of age, with traumatic brain injury and refractory elevated intracranial pressure (>25 mm Hg) to undergo decompressive craniectomy or receive ongoing medical care. The primary outcome was the rating on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) (an 8-point scale, ranging from death to “upper good recovery” [no injury-related problems]) at 6 months. The primary-outcome measure was analyzed with an ordinal method based on the proportional-odds model. If the model was rejected, that would indicate a significant difference in the GOS-E distribution, and results would be reported descriptively.

RESULTS

The GOS-E distribution differed between the two groups (P < 0.001). The proportional-odds assumption was rejected, and therefore results are reported descriptively. At 6 months, the GOS-E distributions were as follows: death, 26.9% among 201 patients in the surgical group versus 48.9% among 188 patients in the medical group; vegetative state, 8.5% versus 2.1%; lower severe disability (dependent on others for care), 21.9% versus 14.4%; upper severe disability (independent at home), 15.4% versus 8.0%; moderate disability, 23.4% versus 19.7%; and good recovery, 4.0% versus 6.9%. At 12 months, the GOS-E distributions were as follows: death, 30.4% among 194 surgical patients versus 52.0% among 179 medical patients; vegetative state, 6.2% versus 1.7%; lower severe disability, 18.0% versus 14.0%; upper severe disability, 13.4% versus 3.9%; moderate disability, 22.2% versus 20.1%; and good recovery, 9.8% versus 8.4%. Surgical patients had fewer hours than medical patients with intracranial pressure above 25 mm Hg after randomization (median, 5.0 vs. 17.0 hours; P< 0.001) but had a higher rate of adverse events (16.3% vs. 9.2%, P=0.03).

CONCLUSIONS

At 6 months, decompressive craniectomy in patients with traumatic brain injury and refractory intracranial hypertension resulted in lower mortality and higher rates of vegetative state, lower severe disability, and upper severe disability than medical care. The rates of moderate disability and good recovery were similar in the two groups

Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27602507

Outcome far better in severe pediatric TBI: aggressive treatment recommended

Impact of Glasgow Coma Scale score and pupil parameters on mortality rate and outcome in pediatric and adult severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective, multicenter cohort study

Emami P, et al.

JNS

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

Prediction of death and functional outcome is essential for determining treatment strategies and allocation of resources for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate, by using pupillary status and GlasgowComa Scale (GCS) score, if patients with severe TBI who are ≤ 15 years old have a lower mortality rate and better outcome than adults with severe TBI.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort analysis of patients suffering from severe TBI registered in the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery between 2002 and 2013 was undertaken. Severe TBI was defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale of the head (AIShead) score of ≥ 3 and an AIS score for any other part of the body that does not exceed the AIShead score. Only patients with complete data (GCS score, age, and pupil parameters) were included. To assess the impact of GCS score and pupil parameters, the authors also used the recently introduced Eppendorf-Cologne Scale and divided the study population into 2 groups: children (0-15 years old) and adults (16-55 years old). Each patient’s outcome was measured at discharge from the trauma center by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale.

RESULTS

A total of 9959 patients fulfilled the study inclusion criteria; 888 (8.9%) patients were ≤ 15 years old (median 10 years). The overall mortality rate and the mortality rate for patients with a GCS of 3 and bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils (19.9% and 16.3%, respectively) were higher for the adults than for the pediatric patients (85% vs 80.9%, respectively), although cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates were significantly higher in the pediatric patients (5.6% vs 8.8%, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no motor response (OR 3.490, 95% CI 2.240-5.435) and fixed pupils (OR 4.197, 95% CI 3.271-5.386) and bilateral dilated pupils (OR 2.848, 95% CI 2.282-3.556) were associated with a higher mortality rate. Patients ≤ 15 years old had a statistically lower mortality rate (OR 0.536, 95% CI 0.421-0.814; p = 0.001). The rate of good functional outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale Score 4 or 5) was higher in pediatric patients than in the adults (72.2% vs 63.1%, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

This study found that severe TBI in children aged ≤ 15 years is associated with a lower mortality rate and superior functional outcome than in adults. Also, children admitted with a missing motor response or fixed and bilaterally dilated pupils also have a lower mortality rate and higher functional outcome than adults with the same initial presentation. Therefore, patients suffering from severe TBI, especially pediatric patients, could benefit from early and aggressive treatment.

Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27035177

Low serum albumin associated with higher mortality for elective craniotomy for brain tumors

Body habitus, serum albumin, and the outcomes after craniotomy for tumor: a National Surgical Quality Improvement Program analysis

Dasenbrock HH, et al.

JNS

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

Although there is a growing body of research highlighting the negative impact of obesity and malnutrition on surgicaloutcomes, few studies have evaluated these parameters in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. The goal of this study was to use a national registry to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) and hypoalbuminemia with 30-day outcomes after craniotomy for tumor.

METHODS

Adult patients who underwent craniotomy for tumor were extracted from the prospective National SurgicalQuality Improvement Program registry. Patients were stratified by body habitus according to the WHO classification, as well as by preoperative hypoalbuminemia (< 3.5 g/dl). Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the association of body habitus and hypoalbuminemia with 30-day mortality, complications, and discharge disposition. Covariates included patient age, sex, race or ethnicity, tumor histology, American Society of Anesthesiology class, preoperative functional status, comorbidities (including hypertension and diabetes mellitus), and additional preoperative laboratory values.

RESULTS

Among the 11,510 patients included, 28.7% were classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), 1.9% as underweight (BMI <  18.5 kg/m2), 33.4% as overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), 19.1% as Class I obese (BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m2), 8.3% as Class II obese (BMI 35.0-39.9 kg/m2), 5.5% as Class III obese (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2), and 3.1% had missing BMI data. In multivariable regression models, body habitus was not associated with differential odds of mortality, postoperative stroke or coma, or a nonroutine hospital discharge. However, the adjusted odds of a major complication were significantly higher for Class I obese (OR 1.28, 99% CI 1.01-1.62; p = 0.008), Class II obese (OR 1.53, 99% CI 1.13-2.07; p <  0.001), and Class III obese (OR 1.67, 99% CI 1.19-2.36; p < 0.001) patients compared with those of normal weight; a dose-dependent effect was seen, with increased effect size with greater adiposity. The higher odds of major complications was primarily due to significantly increased odds of a venous thromboembolism in overweight and obese patients, as well as of a surgical site infection in those with Class II or III obesity. Additionally, 41.0% of patients had an albumin level ≥ 3.5 g/dl, 9.6% had hypoalbuminemia, and 49.4% had a missing albumin value. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with significantly higher odds of mortality (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.41-2.60; p <  0.001) or a nonroutine hospital discharge (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.21-1.76; p <  0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

In this National Surgical Quality Improvement Program analysis evaluating patients who underwent craniotomy for tumor, body habitus was not associated with differential mortality or neurological complications. However, obese patients had increased odds of a major perioperative complication, primarily due to higher rates of venous thromboembolic events and surgical site infections. Preoperative hypoalbuminemia was associated with increased odds of mortality and a nonroutine hospital discharge, suggesting that serum albumin may have utility in stratifying risk preoperatively in patients undergoing craniotomy.

Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27203139

The combination of warfarin and antiplatelet drugs pose the highest risk for subdural hematomas

Association of Antithrombotic Drug Use with Subdural Hematoma Risk

Gaist D, et al.

JAMA

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE

Incidence of subdural hematoma has been reported to be increasing. To what extent this is related to increasing use of antithrombotic drugs is unknown.

OBJECTIVES

To estimate the association between use of antithrombotic drugs and subdural hematoma risk and determine trends in subdural hematoma incidence and antithrombotic drug use in the general population.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

Case-control study of 10 010 patients aged 20 to 89 years with a first-ever subdural hematoma principal discharge diagnosis from 2000 to 2015 matched by age, sex, and calendar year to 400 380 individuals from the general population (controls). Subdural hematoma incidence and antithrombotic drug use was identified using population-based regional data (population: 484 346) and national data (population: 5.2 million) from Denmark. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) that were adjusted for comorbidity, education level, and income level.

EXPOSURES

Use of low-dose aspirin, clopidogrel, a vitamin K antagonist (VKA), a direct oral anticoagulant, and combined antithrombotic drug treatment.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Association of subdural hematoma with antithrombotic drug use, subdural hematoma incidence rate, and annual prevalence of treatment with antithrombotic drugs.

RESULTS

Among 10 010 patients with subdural hematoma (mean age, 69.2 years; 3462 women [34.6%]), 47.3% were taking antithrombotic medications. Current use of low-dose aspirin (cases: 26.7%, controls: 22.4%; adjusted OR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.15-1.33]), clopidogrel (cases: 5.0%, controls: 2.2%; adjusted OR, 1.87 [95% CI, 1.57-2.24]), a direct oral anticoagulant (cases: 1.0%, controls: 0.6%; adjusted OR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.31-2.28]), and a VKA (cases: 14.3%, controls: 4.9%; adjusted OR, 3.69 [95% CI, 3.38-4.03]) were associated with higher risk of subdural hematoma. The risk of subdural hematoma was highest when a VKA was used concurrently with an antiplatelet drug (low-dose aspirin and a VKA: 3.6% of cases and 1.1% of controls; adjusted OR, 4.00 [95% CI, 3.40-4.70]; clopidogrel and a VKA: 0.3% of cases and 0.04% of controls; adjusted OR, 7.93 [95% CI, 4.49-14.02]). The prevalence of antithrombotic drug use increased from 31.0 per 1000 individuals from the general population in 2000 to 76.9 per 1000 individuals in 2015 (P <  .001 for trend). The overall subdural hematoma incidence rate increased from 10.9 per 100 000 person-years in 2000 to 19.0 per 100 000 person-years in 2015 (P <  .001 for trend). The largest increase was among older patients (>75 years; n = 4441) who experienced an increase from 55.1 per 100 000 person-years to 99.7 per 100 000 person-years (P <  .001 for trend).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

In Denmark, antithrombotic drug use was associated with higher risk of subdural hematoma; and the highest odds of subdural hematoma was associated with combined use of a VKA and an antiplatelet drug. The increased incidence of subdural hematoma from 2000 to 2015 appears to be associated with the increased use of antithrombotic drugs, particularly use of a VKA among older patients

Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28245322

Randomized trial shows no benefit for pregabalin (Lyrica) for sciatica

Trial of Pregabalin for Acute and Chronic Sciatica

Mathleson S, et al.

NEJM

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND

Sciatica can be disabling, and evidence regarding medical treatments is limited. Pregabalin is effective in the treatment of some types of neuropathic pain. This study examined whether pregabalin may reduce the intensity of sciatica.

METHODS

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin in patients with sciatica. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either pregabalin at a dose of 150 mg per day that was adjusted to a maximum dose of 600 mg per day or matching placebo for up to 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the leg-pain intensity score on a 10-point scale (with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst possible pain) at week 8; the leg-pain intensity score was also evaluated at week 52, a secondary time point for the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the extent of disability, back-pain intensity, and quality-of-life measures at prespecified time points over the course of 1 year.

RESULTS

A total of 209 patients underwent randomization, of whom 108 received pregabalin and 101 received placebo; after randomization, 2 patients in the pregabalin group were determined to be ineligible and were excluded from the analyses. At week 8, the mean unadjusted leg-pain intensity score was 3.7 in the pregabalin group and 3.1 in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference, 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.2 to 1.2; P=0.19). At week 52, the mean unadjusted leg-pain intensity score was 3.4 in the pregabalin group and 3.0 in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference, 0.3; 95% CI, -0.5 to 1.0; P=0.46). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to any secondary outcome at either week 8 or week 52. A total of 227 adverse events were reported in the pregabalin group and 124 in the placebo group. Dizziness was more common in the pregabalin group than in the placebo group.

CONCLUSIONS

Treatment with pregabalin did not significantly reduce the intensity of leg pain associated with sciatica and did not significantly improve other outcomes, as compared with placebo, over the course of 8 weeks. The incidence of adverse events was significantly higher in the pregabalin group than in the placebo group.

Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28328324

Natural History: 20 days is the median survival time for Ruptured Untreated Cerebral Aneurysms

Natural History of Ruptured but Untreated Intracranial Aneurysms

Korja M, et al.

Stroke

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Knowledge on a natural history of untreated ruptured intracranial aneurysms is based on a small historical cohort from 1960s. We calculated mortality rates for patients with untreated ruptured intracranial aneurysms using a more recent and relatively large hospital cohort.

METHODS

Patients admitted to the study hospital between 1968 and 2007 with saccular but untreated ruptured intracranial aneurysms were identified from the hospital aneurysm registry of 6850 patients. The study cohort included only patients who were followed up until death and for whom the date of symptom onset and the date of hospital admission were available.

RESULTS

For 510 patients identified, the median survival time from symptom onset to death was 20 days. The 1-year mortality rate was 65%, but varied substantially by admission delays and clinical status on admission, being lowest (13%) for patients admitted later than a month after symptom onset and highest (89%) for poor-grade patients. The 1-year mortality rate was 75% for good-grade patients admitted within a week.

CONCLUSIONS

Mortality rates for patients with untreated ruptured intracranial aneurysms are even worse than presented in the historical study. When discussing with subarachnoid hemorrhage patients and their relatives about treatment options, the presented natural history figures are of use.

Abstract link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28250196

Cisternal MgSO4 Not Beneficial For Clinical Vasospasm

Preventive effect of continuous cisternal irrigation with magnesium sulfate solution on angiographic cerebral vasospasms associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages: a randomized controlled trial.

Takuji Yamamoto MD, Kentaro Mori MD, Takanori Esaki MD, et al. (JNS)

In this single institution prospective randomized controlled study which was done in Japan, the investigators studied the efficacy of continuous direct infusion of MgSO4 solution into the intrathecal cistern in patients with an aneurysmal SAH after surgical clipping. This study included 70 consecutive patients presenting with SAH within 72 hours from ictus from April 2008 to March 2013. They had two groups, first one patients who received MgSO4 treatment protocol and the second control group of patients who did not receive MgSO4 treatment. They used transcranial Doppler (TCD) and cerebral angiography to evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal Mg infusion for preventing cerebral vasospasms (CV) and monitored both Mg2+ serum and Mg2+ CSF to assess the safety of this treatment. Also they used mRS after 3 months to assess the improvements in functional outcome. During clipping, the Liliequist membrane was opened to allow CSF circulation between the supratentorial and infratentorial compartments, and the cisternal drainage tube was placed into the basal cistern and a spinal drainage tube was also inserted. Continuous infusion of MgSO4 solution was performed at 20 ml/hr from day 4 until Day 14 through the cisternal to spinal drainage. A decline in consciousness and bradypnea possibly caused by the sedative effect of Mg were observed in Mg group. The TCD results indicated that velocity in MCA increased more in the control group. A delayed cerebral ischemia identified on CT or MRI scans was observed in 9 patients in the control group and in 5 patients in the Mg group. The clinical outcomes at the 3-month follow-up examination did not significantly differ in these outcomes. They concluded that continuous cisternal infusion with MgSO4 solution reduces the incidence of angiographic CV in patients with aneurysmal SAH, particularly of severe spasms on their angiographic CV scale. However this Mg treatment protocol did not reduce the incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia and did not improve clinical outcomes among the patients.

Abstract link: http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2015.1.JNS142757?